Taqleed Ki Haqeeqat Aur Zaroorat

Taqleed Ki Haqeeqat Aur Zaroorat

Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem

 

Aam taur par taqleed ke bare me ghalat fehmi paida ki jati hai ke goya TAQLEED hazraat e Aimma kiraam ko RAB maan lene aur un ko halaal o haram ka haq dene ke Mutaradif hai isliye ye SHIRK hai aur aaj kal Ghair Muqallid Ulama is ko shirk fir-Risala ke unwaan dete Hain.

ye mahez ghalat fehmi aur na samjhi ki baat hai. Taqleed  ka hargiz ye maqsad nahi ke nooozbillah Aimma ko tehleel o tehreem ka muqtaar maana jaye aur samjha jaye ke ye hazraat bataur khud kisi cheez ko halaal ya haraam kar sakte hain, jo Hazraat Muqallid hain woh aisa Aqeedah hargiz nahi rakhte aur agar waqayi woh aisa Aqeedah rakhen to yaqeenan ye Aqedah mushrikana hoga . Taqleed ki haqeeqat mahez ye hai ke jis faqeeh ki taqleed ki jaati hai us ke baare me ye Husn e Zann hota hai ke Allah aur us ke Rasool (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ki mansha ko Saheeh taur par samajh kar hi is faqeeh ne ye rai qayam ki hogi. Woh  Aimma e Mujtahideen ko SHAAREH (commentor) samjhta hai na ke SHAARE’ aur maqsood Quran aur hadees ki pairvi hoti hai na ke us Imam aur Mujtahid ki

 

TAQLEED KI HAQEEQAT:-

 

Is haqeeqat ko samjhne ke liye jo tareef Fuqaha ne Ki hai us ko saamne rakhna kafi hoga. Qaazi  Abdul Nabi Ahmed Nagri ka bayan hai:

 

“ Ek shakhs ka doosre shakhs ke Qaul o fael ki daleel me Ghaur o fikar kiye baghair us ke haq hone ka gumaan rakhte hue pairvi karna Taqleed hai.”

(DASTOORUL ULAMA 1 /341)

 

Allama Ibn Humaam likhte hain:

 

“Taqleed us shakhs ke Qaul par bilaa hujjat amal karna hai jis ka qaul hujjat nahi.

(TAISEERUT TEHREER 4/241)

 

Ibne Humaam ne jo tareef ki hai qareeb qareeb isi tarah ke alfaaz Imam Ghazali(ra),Shaik Abu mansoor Maaturudi Waghaira se bhi manqool hain——- In Ibaaraton se do(2) baaten waazeh hain. Awwal ye ke Taqleed ka maqsad bazaate khud Imam ki itteba nahi balkr kitab o sunnat ki itteba hai, Albatta Muqallid ka ye Husn e Zann hota hai ke us Imam ne jo raai ikhtiyaar ki hai woh Quran aur Hadees se zaida muwafiq aur hum Aahang hai. Ye  bilkul aise hi hai jaise koi shakhs

Bukhari o Muslim ki kisi hadees ko is Husn e zann ki bina par qabool kare ke Imam Bukhari tehqeeq e Hadees me saheeh natije tak pohanche honge. Haalaanke Ahtemaal us me bhi ghalti ka maujood hai pas jaise Muhaddis par riwayat e Hadees ke bare me Husn e zann se kaam liya jata hai, usi tarah ek Muqallid Imam e Mujtahid ke bare me maaniye Hadees ko saheeh taur par samjhne ke baare me Husn e Zann aur nek gumaan raktha hai.

Phir is ke saath is baat ka izafa kijiye to baat aur munaqqah ho jati hai ke Taqleed ke hukum me ye baath dakhil hai ke is baat ka Aqeeda rakhe ke Uska Imam ghalti se masoom aur mubarra nahi hai aur is baat ka bhi ahtemaal maujood hai ke shayad us ne Saheeh natije tak pohanchne me laghzish ki ho aur uski raye ghalat ho. Zaahir  hai agar mujtahideen ko اربابا من دون الله ke darja diya gaya hota aur halal o haram ki Kaleed unke hath me di gayi hoti to un ke bare me Ijtahadi Ghalti ka tasawwur bhi kyu kar kiya jasakta tha?

doosre Taqleed ki haqeeqat me ye baat daakhil hai ke taqleed ek aise shakhs ki itteba ka naam hai ke jis ki raai bazaat e khud hujjath nahi, goya muqallid is baat ko tasleem karta hai ke jaise Allah aur Uske Rasool sallallahu alaihi wasallam ki baat hujjath hai usi tarah Aimma e Mujtahideen ki raaye hujjath aur daleel nahi.

Is  ke bawajood agar taqleed ko shirk qaraar diya jaye aur Muqallideen ke bare me kaha jaye ke woh Aimma kiraam ko RAB ka darja dete hain to kitni badi jasarat aur zulm ki baat hogi aur is se badh kar bhi kuch ghalat bayani ho sakti hai?

Allah Ta’ala ne Gumraahon ki Itteba se zaroor mana farmaya hai lekin jo log hidayat yaafta hon, unki Iqteda ka hukm diya gaya hai.Chunanche Irshaad-e-Rabbani hai.

أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ

(سورة الانعام : 90)

Tarjuma: “ye woh log the jin ko Allah ne hidayat se safaraz farmaya, isliye tum bhi un ke tareeqe par chalo.”

(surah Anam:90)

 

Taqleed  daraasal is hukm e Qur’aani ki ta’meel aur mujtahideen ki iqteda ka naam hai.

Haqeeqat ye hai ke Ghair Muqallid Hazraat ki Shirk-fir-Risalah ki nayee istelah bajaye khud mushirkaana tasawwur ki ghammaaz hai, kyu ke Shirk o Tauheed ka talluq Allah Ta’ala ki Zaat O Sifaat se hai na ke Ambiya-e-kiram ki zaat se. Neez Halaal o Haraam karne ka ikhtiyaar bhi baraahe raast Allah ko hai na ke Rasool ko, Rasool is baab me mahez mansha-e-Rabbani ke tarjumaan hote hai na ke khud kisi cheez ko halaal ya Haraam karne ka Maalik o Mukhtaar. Aur  ye taabeer is baat ko zahir karti hai ke muqam e Risaalat bhi kisi cheez ko halal Haraam karne ya Qanoon e Shariyat Wazaa’(banana) karne me Muassar aur dakil hai – is liye Shirk fir-Risalah ki tabeer daraasal bajaye khud ek Mushrikana Mahfoom ki tabeer hai aur Ghair Muqallid bhayyon ko apne halqe ki is nayee istelaah se ijtinaab karna chahiye.

Agar muqallidin Aimma ke Aqwaal ko naoozubillah Shariyat ka darja dete to kabhi bhi Aimma ke aqwaal ko chordna jayaz nahi hota. Lekin  sainkdo Masail hain ke jahan Muqallideen ne Saheeh aur Sareeh Nusoos ki maujoodgi ya apne Imam ke Qiyas ke muqable doosre Qawi tar Qiyas ke samne aajane ki wajah se apne Imam ki rai ko chorda hai. Hanafiya  ne sainkdo masail me imam Abu Hanifa(ra) ke bajaye Imam Abu Yousuf rah aur Imam Muhammad rah ki rai ko qabool kiya hai. Aur  Ibn Najim(ra) ne Haavi Qudusi se yahi usool naqal kiya hai.

ان الامام اذا كان في جانب و هما في جانب فالاصح ان الاعتبار لقوة المدرك

(البحر 2/269)

Tarjuma:-  “Imam Abu Hanifa(ra) ek rai ke haamil ho aur Sahibain (Imam Abu yousuf aur imam Muhammad ) is ke bar qilaaf, to saheeh ye hai ke Quwwat-e-Daleel ka aitebar hoga.”

Fuqaha e Shawafe ne dasiyou masail me imam shafai(ra) ke Aqwaal e Jadeed ke bajaye Aqwaal e Qadeem par Fatwa diya hai, kyu ke in masail me app ke Qadeem Aqwal zaahir nusoos se ziada qareeb the. Imam Nawawi (ra) ne sharah muhazzab ke muqadme me tafseel se zikr kiya hai.

(tasfeel ke liya dekhiya shara-mazhab 1/6)

Fuqaha  Hanabala ke yahan bhi kasrate se ye rawish paayi jati hai ke Imam Ahmed(ra) ke baaz Aqwaal ko Quwwat e daleel ki bina par tark kiya jata hai. jin Hazraat ne “Al-Mughni” ya “Al-Iqnaa’” waghaira ka mutaala’a kiya hai wo zaroor is ki tasdeeq karenge. Malikiya  ke yahan go taqleed me kisi qadar ziada shiddat hai lekin Ibne Rushd aur Ibne Arabi Maliki waghaira ne muta’addad mauqo par Imam Malik ki rai ke muqabale me dusri rai ko tarjeeh diya hai.

Hanafiyya ke yahan to yahan tak sarahat milti hai ke agar koi muqallid aisa sahib e ilm ho aur Ahkaam o dalail se Aagah ho ke SHAARE’ ke mansha ko samajh sakta ho, hadees ki tahqeeq kar sakta ho aur Muhaqiq Aalim ho aur kisi khaas masale me is ko apne Imam ka mazhab Quran aur Hadees se ziada mutabiq nazar nahi aata ho to us ke liye NASS par amal aur Imam ki rai ko chood dena durust hai. Chunanche  Allama Shaami rah likhte hai:

“ KHAZAANATUR RIWAYAAT me hai ke Aalim jo Nusoos o ahadees ke mahfoom o mansha se waqif ho aur Ashab e dirayat me se ho , uske liye nusoos par amal karne durust  hai gou us ke maktab e fiqhi ke Khilaaf ho.

(shami:1/51)

 

Is silsile me Allama Ibne Humam ki ye wazahat bhi badi chasham kusha hai:

“Apne  Imam ke mazhab ke khilaf qaul ko dalail ke aitebar sa qavi aur raajeh mehsoos kare to uski taraf udool kar sakta hai, kyu ke Mukallaf Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam ki Itteba par Mamoor hai , ye Raaye uske mutabiq hai jo Imam e Ahmed aur imam Qudoori se manqool hai aur isi par Ulama ka ek giroh chala hai jin me Ibne Salaah aur Ibne Hamdaan hain.

(TAISEERUT TEHREER 4/255)

Maazi qareeb ke ulama me Maulana Asharf Ali Thanvi(ra) bade muhaqqiq aur sahib e baseerat Aalim guzre hain wo farmata hai:

“Albatta agar qaul e Abi Hanifa(ra) ko kisi Aayat ya Hadees Ke khilaf dekhenge to us waqt beshak us ko tark karenge…..Agar Imam Ki daleel siwaye Qiyas ke aur kuch na ho aur Hadees Muariz ho to Qaul e Imam ko chord diya jata hai,Jaise  ما اكثر كثيرة فقليلة حرامme hua hai ke Imam sahab rah ne qadr e ghair maskar ko jayaz kaha hai aur Hadees me uske khilaaf ki tasreeh maujood hai , Yahan Imam sahab ke qaul ko chord dete hain magar iske liye bade Tabahhur ki zaroorat hai.(IJTAHAD WA-TAQLEED KA AKHIRI FAISLA:………..)

Ek aur mauqe par Taqleed e Shakhsi ke bare me tehreer farmate hai:

“Is Hukum ko Maqsood bizzaat samajhna beshak bidat hai lekin maqsood bil-ghair samajhna yani maqsood biz zaat ka Muqaddama samajhna beshak bid’at nahi bal ke itaa’at hai”.

(Bawadir-un-navadir, risala Aedadul jannah 779)

In sutoor se ya haqeeqat poori tarah wazeh hai ke Taqleed naoozbillah Aimma e fiqh Ke Aqwaal O Aara ko Shariyat Ka Darja Dena Hargiz Nahi, Agar aisa hota to Bade Bade Muhadisseen o fuqaha ne kaise taqleed ki raah ikhtiyaar ki hoti, phir ye Ajib Ittefaq hai ke Tafseer e Quran aur Ahadees e shareefa ki tadween o tashreeh ka jo kaam huwa hai chand kitabon ko chord kar ye sab muqallideen hi ke kaarname hai, Agar Kitab o Sunnat ki In hazraat ki nigah me Ahmiyat na hoti to in hazraat ne uloom o Funoon ko kaise ye Ahmiyat di hoti? Aur phir ye Hazraat un dalail me Tarjeeh aur Radd o Qadah se kyu kaam lete ? Zaahir hai ye sab kuch isi liye hai ke un Hazraat ne Quran o Hadees hi ko Qanoon ka asal sar Chashma samjha hai, aur Hazraat e Fuqaha ke Qaul ko uski Tashreeh ki haisiyat se Qabool kiya hai aur Wo bhi ye maante huwe ke isme Ghalti ka imkaan maujood hai…. Iske bawajood Taqleed ko Allah aur Uske Rasool sallallahu alaihi wasallam ki Ita’at o Itteba ke bajaye Shirk wahi shakhs samajh sakta hai jo ya to Nawaafiq ho ya na samajh logon ko dhoka me rakhna chahta ho.

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